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Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Lifestyle modifications

NUTRITION

  • Dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C + E, beta carotene / luteine and zeaxanthine, and zinc) may reduce the risk of developing advanced AMD. Consider using AREDS2 formulation (1)

  • High intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is associated with reduced risk of AMD (1)

  • A combination of lutein, zeaxanthine and omega 3 fatty acids supplementation may reduce the risk of AMD progression (2)

  • Alcohol: Moderate and heavy alcohol intake may increase the risk of early AMD (4, 5)

  • Fish / omega 3: Associated with reduced risk of AMD development and progression (5, 6)

  • Meat: Associated with increased risk of early AMD development (5)


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • A high level of physical activity may reduce the risk of early stage AMD (3)


SMOKING

  • Smoking is a strong risk factor for AMD. Smoking cessation is recommended (1)

References

Resources

Evidence Pyramid

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE

Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in plain font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE

Figure: Evidence pyramid

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