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Coronary Heart Disease

Lifestyle modifications

NUTRITION

  • Saturated fats: Less than 7% of daily calories (1)

  • Trans fat: Less than 1% of daily calories (1)

  • Fibre: > 10g/day (1)

  • Omega 3 from fish or supplements (1)


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • 30-60 min of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity (eg. brisk walking) 5-7 days a week (1)


WEIGHT

  • Recommended BMI: 18.5 - 25 (1)

  • Waist circumference: < 102 cm for men, < 89 cm for women (1)


SMOKING CESSATION

  • Avoid smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (workplace, at home, etc.) (1)

  • Smoking cessation may reduce the ischemic heart disease mortality with about 33%. 10-15 years after smoking cessation the risk is at the same level as non-smokers (1)


POTENSIAL REVERSAL WITH AN INTENSIVE LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION

  • There is some evidence that an intensive and broad lifestyle intervention (10% fat whole foods vegetarian diet, aerobic exercise, stress management training, smoking cessation, group psychosocial support) may lead to regression of coronary artery plaques and reduction of cardiac events (2)

References

Resources

Evidence Pyramid

EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION

Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD

Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE

Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in plain font

Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE

Figure: Evidence pyramid

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