Alcohol, caffeine and spices may worsen menopausal symptoms (1)
Drinking cold water (1)
A whole food plant based diet low in fat with a daily 1/2 cup (86g) of cooked soybeans: In a randomized controlled study including postmenopausal women with 2 or more hot flashes daily there was a 79% reduction of total hot flashes (49% in the control group with no intervention), 84% reduction of moderate-severe hot flashes (42% in the control group). From week 0-12 56% of the intervention group reported becoming free of moderate-severe hot flashes (no change in control group) (2).
Stress management as stress may worsen symptoms (1)
Avoid warm environment (1)
WEIGHT & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Weight reduction if obese/overweight and regular exercise may not reduce menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, etc.), but have benefits for cardiovascular and bone health (1).
EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION
Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD
Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE
Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in plain font
Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE
Figure: Evidence pyramid