In some cases nicotine, caffeine and alcohol increase the symptoms. If these substances increase symptoms of RLS recommend to avoid/minimize the intake (1, 2).
Iron: Iron deficiency may cause restless legs syndrome. Start iron supplementation if ferritin is below 75mcg/l. Vitamin C increases iron absorption (2).
Vitamin D: Significant association between vitamin D levels and restless legs syndrome. Normalize vitamin D levels if deficiency is present (3).
Obesity: There is increased risk of restless legs syndrome among obese individuals (4)
Moderate regular exercise (1)
For symptomatic relief – walking, bicycling, soaking the affected limbs, and leg massage, including pneumatic compression (1)
Reduced sleep may aggravate symptoms of RLS in many patients. Thus, improving sleep may possibly reduce symptoms of RLS (2).
Mental alerting activities, such as working on a computer or doing crossword puzzles, at times of rest or boredom (2).
Stretching, warm baths before bedtime (1).
EXPLANATION TO EVIDENCE PRESENTATION
Evidence based on guidelines and evidence based Clinical Decision Systems is written in BOLD
Evidence based on meta analysis or systematic reviews is written in BOLD and CURSIVE
Evidence based on randomized controlled trials is written in plain font
Evidence based on observational / cohort studies is written in CURSIVE
Figure: Evidence pyramid